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Methods and statistics


The basic idea of the methods of AVITOPIA is related to the notion of a projection. In linear algebra this notion describes an idempotent mapping of vectors of a space into a subspace. In practical application of a projection the dimension of the subspace is less than that of the the original space, since a projection with equal dimension would be nothing else than the identity.

At AVITOPIA the high-dimensional original space consists of the contents of the data base and of the image archive, while the image (sub-)space with lower dimension is spanned by the interests of the user, comparable for example to a projection plane. Both the content of the original space and the projector are provided by AVITOPIA. All the user has to do is to express his/her wishes. Then the projector generates a restricted content considering the wishes, which is - because of its lower dimension - more accessible to the user: the P-book. Of course, the "projection" is not linear, but it meets the characteristic condition of a projection, that is the repetition of the operation (by concatenation) would not change the result (idempotence). In this context the emphasis of the method is on the reduction of dimension.

In contrast to a conventional search engine the wishes expressed by a user are not required to be deposited in the data base explicitly. They can rather be met with by means of the inverse search implemented in the engine of the projector.

After the projection the result is converted in an automated layout process into an e-book. Finally, the content of the e-book is put out in two different formates (PDF and ePub).


Multilingual quality of the Avitopia Data Base:

German, english, french, spanish and japanese vernacular names are available at 100%.
For the system according to Clements et al. 2017 chinese vernacular names are available at 99.61%.

Media quality of the Avitopia Archive:

For the time being the archive holds 28819 images.
In addition, there are links to 605 HD videos with a cumulative duration of 4h 46m 27s as well as to 182 audio tracks with a cumulative duration of 1h 25m 12s available.

Taxonomic quality of the Avitopia Image Archive:

Using the system according to Clements et al. currently 100% of the species of birds can be illustrated in colors.

Illustration ratio of bird guides of nations and islands

World map of buide guide illustration ratio

Legend to the illustration ratio of bird species of nations

     100% ratio:200 countries, 88 archipelagos

Scientific system

Clements et al. 2017
Del Hoyo et al. (HBW) 1992-2011
Gill and Wright 2006
Howard and Moore 2003


Naturally, using the procedure to customize ebooks you can produce a bird guide for every place on the surface of the earth and hence cover every bird species.
On the other hand, the series of ready-made bird guides for countries include more than 98% of bird species. The remaining bird species are treated in our bird guides for islands and in our bird guide collection. Thus also the ready-made ebooks cover all bird species. This holds for the books published by AVITOPIA at Amazon, too.

Date: 25. 06. 2024

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